Basic principles of hazard analysis2018-07-06T09:55:56+00:00

Basic principles of hazard analysis

Identify hazard
Assess hazard
Reduce hazard to a tolerable level
Eliminate hazard entirely
Specify technical and organisational measures

Procedure for hazard analysis

Approach of a hazard analysis Determination of machine limits

Application limits

o   Operation modes

o   Knowledge and competence of operator / different operators

Regional limits

o   Area for machine motion

o   Required space of operator

o   Interface human / machine

Temporary limits

o   Lifetime of machine or components

o   Service intervals

Other limits

o   Temperature, humidity, …

Approach of a hazard analysis Identification of hazards (1/4)

All necessary actions / contacts of persons in every operating mode / every process step, at every hazard area and in every phase of life must be considered.

Phases of life are e.g.:

o   Transport, assembly, installation

o   Commissioning

o   Application

o   Shutdown, disassembly, disposal

Approach of a hazard analysis Identification of hazards (2/4)

Operating modes / process steps are e.g.:

o   Rigging

o   Testing

o   Teaching

o   Change over

o   Start

o   Shut down of the machine

o   Shut down of the machine in hazardous situation

o   Debugging and –elimination

o   Cleaning

o   Automatic operation

o   Off

Approach of a hazard analysis Identification of hazards (3/4)

Types of hazards

Mechanical hazards are e.g.:
Crushing, cropping, cutting or abscission, capturing or winding, feeding or trapping, shock, puncture or penetration, rubbing or abrasion, spurt out of liquids, beating of broken tubes

Other hazards are e.g.:

o   electrical hazards

o   thermal hazards

o   noise, vibration, radiation, hazardous substances, …

Approach of a hazard analysis Identification of hazards (4/4)

Hazard areas

o   Feed in

o   Processing

o   Feed out

o   Changeover to other parts of the machine

Approach of a hazard analysis Risk estimation (1/2)

Determination of risk elements

o   Measure of damages (slightly, seriously, deadly, number of persons) and

o   Probability of damage

  • Exposure to hazard (necessity of entry to hazard area, type of entry, duration, number of persons, frequency)
  • Occurrence of event (reliability and statistical data, accident history, damage to health, risk comparisons)
  • Possibilities to prevent or limit damage (training, duration of hazard until damage occurs, user informations, danger signals, display units, human capabilities)

Approach of a hazard analysis Risk estimation (2/2)

o   Aspects which must be considered

o   category of persons

o   type, frequency and duration of exposure to hazard

o   relationship between exposure and effect to hazard

o   human factors

o   efficiency of safety measures

o   possibilities to switch off or bypass safety measures

o   capability to maintain safety measures

o   user information

Approach of a hazard analysis Reduction of risk

o   Priority of risk reducing measures:

o   constructional measures

o   barriers

  • safety measures

o   light barriers

  • user information

o   organisational measures

o   trainings

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